the exterior factors that influence the company operations either
direct or indirect.
component of business environment that influences the company's
capacity to promote and perform efficient operations on the market.
The environment can not be influenced
by the company as it is comprised of external factors.
An influence on these factors can be
exerted, but it depends on the company's power and size on the
market. There are big companies that have a major influence on
environment factors and small businesses that need to adapt
continuously to environment changes.
Considering this, the company's
attitude towards the business environment can be:
- Active – The company tries to influence the environment
- Passive – The company continually adapts to the
Despite the company's attitude, the
environment always exerts influence on it, externalized in:
The elements of marketing environment
can be classified in:
- Marketing Micro-environment – the factors that influence
directly the ability of the company to achieve an offer standard
desired by the customers
- Marketing Macro-environment – factors that affect the
society as a whole and influence the company indirectly
Micro-environment factors interact
directly with the company and create pressure that produces a certain
behavior of the company.
There are opportunities the company can
capitalize in its relations with business partners, but also threats
to be avoided or prevented.
Marketing micro-environment can also be
classified in internal and external micro-environment.
of strategic orientations and organization structures that capitalize
on the human, material and financial resources of the company.
Internal micro-environment factors are:
- The general vision of the company. This is developed by
the management and leads the company's activities to operations focused
on production, technology, sales or market. It's very important that
the focus is on marketing, trying to appease both company's and
- Marketing integration. Related to the general vision of
the company. The marketing function must be an integrator function for
all other functions, so that the marketing concept can be promoted.
- Organizational culture. It represents a series of values
and beliefs promoted company-wide, being a result of cultural elements
that characterize the people that run the business or support it:
employees, managers, shareholders, union. Development of organizational
culture is crucial.
- Employees. This the main internal micro-environmental
factor that influences the company, considering that the employees are
involved in all company's operations. Employees' satisfaction is
important because it results in customer satisfaction.
the external factors that affect directly the company and exert
External micro-environment factors are:
- Financial and material suppliers. Can create opportunities
and threats related to supplier's disappearance or disconnection of
usual supply. This sort of situations can lead to operation blockage
caused by lack of resources. Therefor, the relation between supplier
and company need to be long term, strategic partnerships.
- Marketing intermediates. Commissioners, brokers,
transporters, logistics, consultants need also to be in strategic, long
term partnerships with the company.
- Customers. Individuals or companies that buy our products.
They are the main micro-environment element because they assure
operation continuity by purchasing the company's products for
consumption or use. Company's operations focus need to be on customer
satisfaction and relational marketing implementation.
- Competitors. They are the micro-environment factor that
causes most of the treats, being focused on reaching to more and more
market segments, also by drawing customers from competitors over the
market. The main concern relating to competitors in gaining competitive
- The public. Mass-media, public administration, politic
groups, shareholders, all these factors can create both opportunities
and threats for the company.
also be classified in national macro-environment and international
comprises factors that affect the entire society and have also a
influence on the company but long term and wide spread.
National macro-environment factors are:
- Social factors: Demographic
factors, related to the population structure in age, household,
education, employment, geographical location.
factors, related to values, beliefs, religion,
- Technological factors
- Economical factors (economic policy, economy development,
- Ecological factors
- Political and legal factors
is a result of economic globalization, externalized in economic
The factors that influence the
international macro-environment are:
- Commercial policies (regarding customs, import, export)
- International investment fluxes
- Financial and monetary international processes
- International markets
- Treaties between countries.