series of decisions and operations that target the generation and
maintaining of a certain image of the product in consumer's mind,
related to the competitor brands.
A product's position includes the
perceptions, opinions and feelings the customers have regarding the
product, comparing it to the similar products on the market.
Therefore, from different points of view, a product can have a lower
or higher position compared to other competitor products.
- Identifying the key features of the product – the
features that are most useful for the customer must be highlighted.
- Designing a perceptual map – by comparing the key
features to the key features of competitor brands.
- Assigning the differentiation criteria for the product –
the product's strong points can be used as competitive advantages.
- Designing the product image – conducting advertising
activities, focused on the product's strong points in order to generate
a positive perception from the customers. Promotional activities are
crucial because they create positive positions in customer's mind.
- Maintaining the image – is done also through promotional
activities, based on previously mentioned strategies, meant to enhance
the image and the positive position it has in the consumer's
The positioning factors
considered for differentiation criteria roles as well as for
positioning and they have to meet the following requirements
- They must be important for the customer
- They must be specific, unique – the competition
doesn't have the same features.
- Noticeable and can be disclosed
- Consumer accessible
- Profitable for the company
- Must be real.
Depending on the product's features and
company's objectives, there are various positioning strategies
along with appropriate promotion techniques:
- Positioning related to the competition
- Equal or higher performance – the promotional activities focus on
comparing the product with the competition. This must be done carefully
not to break the law regarding comparative advertising.
- Avoiding the competition – the promotional messages are focused
on product's key features.
- Positioning related to product's features
- Positioning related to value-for-money - this method is suitable
for products that don't have many features, launders for example, that
promote high quality cleansing at a low price.
- Positioning related to usage method
- Certain moments of the day: food
- After physical effort: energy drinks.
- Positioning by associating the product to a certain user group
– suitable for cosmetics, drinks, tobacco. In this case, the message is
delivered by actors, tv stars, sports people, musicians.
- Positioning by product class – the advertising messages
are comparing the product with substitutable products( shower gel and
- Positioning related to origin place – for example, French
wine and fragrances, Belgian chocolate, German beer, Scotch whiskey.
The messages are focused on the good reputation of some products
originating from certain areas.
Sometimes during its existence, a
company may notice that its products' image is outdated, or can be
improved. Then the company starts re-positioning its products in
Re-positioning consists in identifying
a new, unoccupied market position and promoting the product based on
the new criteria.
Re-positioning is suitable for
minimizing company's own products' competition. The business is
trying to make a difference in the way the consumers perceive the
similar products they furnish.
Re-positioning requires a sustained
promotional campaign and bring forward many risks.