A company can employ various
promotional techniques in order to communicate with the target
market, techniques that form the promotional mix.
Depending on the communication means,
the promotional techniques can be:
- Direct (personal) communication techniques – focused on
creating a relationship with each client (personal sales, direct
- Indirect (non- personal) communication techniques – based
on mass communication, the message in identical for a high number of
potential customers ( advertising, public relations, sales promotion
Following, the main promotional
techniques used by companies:
Is a form of promoting the products, services and image of a company
that is addressed to large numbers of consumers, using the mass media.
Depending on the financing, there are:
- Free advertising – is an informative communication that
doesn't have a sponsor. Focuses on reporting news or information
concerning a company, using mass media (press conferences, press
- Advertising – is paid by a sponsor, that is usually the
company producing the promoted goods. Its main characteristics are:
- It's a paid promotion technique
- The target market is scattered territorially
- The message is transmitted using mass media
- Is a non-personal communication technique
- The company paying for the advertising is usually identified
in the content of the message.
- Public relations
Are a deliberate and planned effort of a company to communicate to
various public categories that might have an interest in the company's
activities (customers, investors, employees). The purpose of this in
creating a favorable image and a trust climate based on convenient
mutual relations. Public relations use various communication channels,
from personal channels to mass media. The differences between
public relations and advertising are:
- Public relations use informative messages (company
achievements, annual reports, balance sheets)
- Advertising calls to immediate action while public relations
try to build trust
- Public relations actions are unique, while advertising can be
- Public relations can be achieved also through public dialogue.
- Sales promotion
Uses a wide variety of instruments meant to lead the customer to an
immediate action regarding the purchase of a good or service. The main
characteristics of sales promotions are:
- Offer an immediate advantage – a price discount, a higher
quantity at the same price, a free service, a contest.
- Are exceptional – the advantage is not permanent, is available
for only a period of time
- Call to immediate action – the fact that the offer is limited
- Cause regrets – if the customer doesn't purchase the product.
All these are communicated in the message that joins the campaign.
The main sale promotion techniques
- Price discounts
- Offering a larger amount of the product at the same price
- Group sales
- Loyalty gifts
- Games, contests, raffles.
- Point-of-sale promotions
Involve the usage of product display techniques, also supported by
various audio-video materials, that stimulate the purchasing process of
the people visiting the sale point. Even if the point-of-sale promotion
is usually employed by detail sellers, it also has a wider application.
Actually, each company subsidiary can be provided with materials that
inform the customer about the products and services he can purchase in
that place. These materials include:
- Product display shelves
- Specific lighting
- Point-of-sale atmosphere
- Audio-video messages
- Promotional gifts (pens, lighters, bags, products printed
with the company brand)
- Direct marketing
Is an interactive communication system with each consumer, using a
distance communication mean: catalogs, personal letters, electronic
catalogs. The interactivity consists in the option the receiver has to
order the product from the catalog, and have it delivered at home.
- Personal sales
Involve the direct contact between a salesperson and a customer,
usually at the customer's residence or in public places. The selling
process is joined by promotional messages focused on the advantages
offered by the product.
- Promotional gifts
Are small presents printed with the company logo or product name,
offered to the customer in order to remind him of the product. For
example: pens, lighters, ashtrays, agendas.
- Internet promotion
Consists in communication using web sites that will create the virtual
company image, present the products, include press releases. The most
used Internet advertising means are: banners, pop-ups, newsletters,
link to the company website.