is a name, a sign, a
picture or a combination of these elements that is used to identify
the goods and services of a certain company and differentiate them
Imposing a brand demands:
- Quality products, appreciated by the customers
- Sustained promotional activities – building the brand image
- Brand name chosen carefully
The operations related to imposing the
brand consist in an entire series of promotional activities that aim
at associating the brand to various elements, such as:
- Product traits (for example, Mercedes – reliable,
well built, elegant, expensive)
- Product advantages
- Reliable – doesn't require often service
- Elegant – indicates a special, appreciated person
- Expensive – exclusive, not everyone can afford it.
- Buyer's values – affiliation to social groups and
- Manufacturer's culture – German culture:
exceptionally high quality products, reliability.
The brand has 3 main components, strong
Choosing the brand name
- Brand name – consists of words, has the role of an audio
- Brand sign or emblem – is a combination of graphic
elements, used as a visual stimulus. It facilitates the brand
association in customers' minds. Can also be marked on products as a
distinctive sign or for design purposes.
- Brand certificate – offers legal protection, granting the
exclusive right of usage to the certificate owner. Having such a
certificate is very important because imposing the brand requires
extensive costs that would vanish in case of other competitors'
unauthorized usage of the brand.
is a crucial activity, on this element depending the brand success on
the market. The brand name has to meet certain requirements:
- Distinctive and unique
- Easily pronounced, memorized and remembered
- Suggestive for the offered products
- Familiar, warm, polite, so that the customer likes it
- Should not be offensive or obscene
- Can be pronounced in foreign languages without
distorting its meaning.
The brand has a crucial importance for
both the consumer and the company, because it generates a series of
advantages for both categories.
It is important for the consumer
because the brand:
- Simplifies the buying process – associating the brand to a
certain product quality
- Offers safety and warranty
- Indicates a certain social status.
The brand is important for the
- Assures a loyal customers base
- Allows superior prices due to the added value the brand
- Can be a start for new products, more easily accepted on
- Causes the promotional activities to be more effective,
because they comprise all the products that carry the brand
- Can be sold as a separate product, as a brand name or
- Manufacturer brand – products sold under producer's
brand(IBM, Philips, Canon)
- Commerce brand – set by intermediary suppliers. The
product is no longer identified with the manufacturer.
- Generic brand – products that don't have a brand.
Options for adopting a brand
- Individual brand – companies assign different brand
names to each product, depending on the quality, based on market
- Collective or family brand – given to all product
categories. It is usually the company name(Philips, Bosch, General
- Family brands for distinct product categories, for
example, Toyota – average cars, Lexus – luxury division of Toyota
- Mixed brands – a combination between the company
name and the product's individual brand.
- Expanding the brand
- to the product line – more products from the same
category have the same brand
- to other product categories – Honda extended its
brand name from motorcycles and cars to lawn mowers.
- Multiple brands strategy – in the same products
category the company uses distinct brands, so that they are
differentiated inside the same class.
- Commune/Dual brand strategy – creating a brand
through associating 2 or more notorious names.
- New brand strategy – creating a new brand for new