Promotional Techniques

A company can employ various promotional techniques in order to communicate with the target market, techniques that form the promotional mix.
Depending on the communication means, the promotional techniques can be:

  • Direct (personal) communication techniques – focused on creating a relationship with each client (personal sales, direct marketing)
  • Indirect (non- personal) communication techniques – based on mass communication, the message in identical for a high number of potential customers ( advertising, public relations, sales promotion

Following, the main promotional techniques used by companies:

  1. Advertising
    Is a form of promoting the products, services and image of a company that is addressed to large numbers of consumers, using the mass media. Depending on the financing, there are:
  • Free advertising – is an informative communication that doesn’t have a sponsor. Focuses on reporting news or information concerning a company, using mass media (press conferences, press releases)
  • Advertising – is paid by a sponsor, that is usually the company producing the promoted goods. Its main characteristics are:
    • It’s a paid promotion technique
    • The target market is scattered territorially
    • The message is transmitted using mass media
    • Is a non-personal communication technique
    • The company paying for the advertising is usually identified in the content of the message.
  1. Public relations
    Are a deliberate and planned effort of a company to communicate to various public categories that might have an interest in the company’s activities (customers, investors, employees). The purpose of this in creating a favorable image and a trust climate based on convenient mutual relations. Public relations use various communication channels, from personal channels to mass media. The differences between public relations and advertising are:
    • Public relations use informative messages (company achievements, annual reports, balance sheets)
    • Advertising calls to immediate action while public relations try to build trust
    • Public relations actions are unique, while advertising can be repeated
    • Public relations can be achieved also through public dialogue.
  1. Sales promotion
    Uses a wide variety of instruments meant to lead the customer to an immediate action regarding the purchase of a good or service. The main characteristics of sales promotions are:
    • Offer an immediate advantage – a price discount, a higher quantity at the same price, a free service, a contest.
    • Are exceptional – the advantage is not permanent, is available for only a period of time
    • Call to immediate action – the fact that the offer is limited is highlited
    • Cause regrets – if the customer doesn’t purchase the product.
      All these are communicated in the message that joins the campaign.

The main sale promotion techniques are:

      • Price discounts
      • Offering a larger amount of the product at the same price
      • Group sales
      • Gifts
      • Loyalty gifts
      • Samples
      • Games, contests, raffles.
  1. Point-of-sale promotions
    Involve the usage of product display techniques, also supported by various audio-video materials, that stimulate the purchasing process of the people visiting the sale point. Even if the point-of-sale promotion is usually employed by detail sellers, it also has a wider application. Actually, each company subsidiary can be provided with materials that inform the customer about the products and services he can purchase in that place. These materials include:
      • Lightboxes
      • Banners
      • Posters
      • Product display shelves
      • Specific lighting
      • Point-of-sale atmosphere
      • Audio-video messages
      • Promotional gifts (pens, lighters, bags, products printed with the company brand)
  1. Direct marketing
    Is an interactive communication system with each consumer, using a distance communication mean: catalogs, personal letters, electronic catalogs. The interactivity consists in the option the receiver has to order the product from the catalog, and have it delivered at home.
  2. Personal sales
    Involve the direct contact between a salesperson and a customer, usually at the customer’s residence or in public places. The selling process is joined by promotional messages focused on the advantages offered by the product.
  3. Promotional gifts
    Are small presents printed with the company logo or product name, offered to the customer in order to remind him of the product. For example: pens, lighters, ashtrays, agendas.
  4. Internet promotion
    Consists in communication using web sites that will create the virtual company image, present the products, include press releases. The most used Internet advertising means are: banners, pop-ups, newsletters, link to the company website.